Наукові конференції Львівського національного університету імені Івана Франка, ІІ Міжнародна науково-практична конференція «КОМУНІКАЦІЯ У СУЧАСНОМУ СОЦІУМІ»

Розмір шрифта: 
FORMATIVE VERSUS SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN TEACHING ACADEMIC WRITING
Mariya KOZOLUP, Nataliya SKIBA

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Дата: 2018-06-08 03:00 – 05:30
Змінено: 2018-06-02

Тези


Assessment plays a vital role in the process of learning. Approaches to evaluation and assessment have changed over time along with understanding of the nature of learning and the concept of competence. As stated in “Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing” (2010), there has been a shift in the purpose of schooling from knowledge transmission model, where students were held accountable to the teachers for the amount of knowledge they had acquired and where tests were a sufficient assessment tool, to inquiry based framework, whereby “assessment is the exploration of how the educational environment and the participants in the educational community support the process of students as they learn to become independent and collaborative thinkers and problem solvers” [4, p. 2].

Teaching academic writing to undergraduate level students is a complex multidimensional pedagogical task that pursues a variety of goals and involves numerous participants into the process. Academic writing assessment is particularly challenging due to a wide range of genres representing various disciplines with their own standard requirements and discourse conventions, and reflecting different disciplinary specific ways of knowledge acquisition and processing. Assessment is closely linked to learning goals and depending on the latter can perform a number of functions. Among the most important purposes of academic writing assessment, scholars emphasize the following: to measure students’ knowledge and understanding of a particular subject; to indicate how effectively students can express their knowledge and understanding in writing; to help students learn, or consolidate their learning; to provide a diagnostic assessment of a student’s writing; to provide feedback to students and motivate them; to help students develop self-assessment skills; to grade or rank students; to select for future courses; to select for employment; to provide feedback to lecturers; to evaluate a course’s strengths and weaknesses and eventually improve teaching; to provide statistics for internal and external agencies [1, p. 11; 3, p. 75].

Various approaches and methods of assessment fall into two major categories: summative and formative. The former is often referred to as end-point, concerned with making evaluative judgements and represented mainly in numbers whereas the latter has a continuous nature and is primarily aimed at students’ improvement over time through verbal responses and feedback on their progress [2, p. 6]. Currently, there is a tendency to prioritize formative type of assessment due to its developmental character and obvious benefits it confers on the learners. However, the role of summative assessment should not be underestimated either. Throughout their academic progress at university, students encounter writing across the curriculum in different disciplinary contexts and for various educational purposes: both as a learning tool and a means of expression. Thus, the instances of students’ writing skills evaluation and assessment are numerous and diverse, and involve a wide variety of evaluators from students themselves, peer tutors and faculty to writing programme coordinators, administrators and potential employers. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the appropriateness of various methods of assessment to educational goals at different stages of teaching academic writing to undergraduate university students.

Література


  1. Brown G., Bull J., Pendlebury M. Assessing Student Learning in Higher Education. – London & New York : Routledge, 1997. – 317 p.
  2. Brown S. Institutional Strategies for Assessment // Assessment Matters in Higher Education: Choosing and Using Diverse Approaches / [Eds. S. Brown, A. Glasner]. – Philadelphia : Open University Press, 1999. – P. 3–13.
  3. Goodman S., Swann J. Planning the assessment of student writing // Teaching academic writing: A toolkit for higher education / [C. Coffin, M. Curry, S. Goodman et al.]. – London & New York : Routledge, 2003. – P. 73–100.
  4. Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing, Revised Edition / Prepared by the Joint Task Force on Assessment of the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English. – Delaware : Co-publication of the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English, 2010. – 53 p.